From Wikipedia, the “free encyclopedia”
Rugby union
Highest governing body International Rugby Board
Nickname(s) Rugger, Rugby[1]
First played Early 19th century (early forms)
1845 (first written laws)
Registered players 5,062,396
Clubs 18,920
Contact Full contact
Team members 15
Mixed gender Separate competitions
Categorization Team sport, Outdoor
Equipment Rugby ball
Olympic 1900; removed from programme in 1928; Rugby Sevens reinstated 2016

Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century.[2] One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. It is played with an oval-shaped ball with a maximum length and width of 30 centimetres (12 in) and 62 centimetres (24 in) respectfully. It is played on a field up to 100 metres (330 ft) long and 70 metres (230 ft) wide with H-shaped goal posts on each goal line.

William Webb Ellis is often credited with the invention of running with the ball in hand in 1823 at Rugby School when he allegedly caught the ball while playing football and ran towards the opposition goal. However, the evidence for the story is doubtful. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils; other significant events in the early development of rugby include the Blackheath Club‘s decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the split between rugby union and rugby league in 1895. Historically an amateur sport, in 1995 the International Rugby Board (IRB) removed restrictions on payments to players, making the game openly professional at the highest level for the first time.

The IRB has been the governing body for rugby union since its formation in 1886. The spread of rugby union grew from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland, and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Georgia, New Zealand, Samoa, Tonga and Wales. Rugby union is played in over 100 countries across six continents and as of November 2010 118 unions were members of the IRB.

The Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years, with the winner of the tournament receiving the Webb Ellis Cup. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere (the latter replacing the Tri Nations) are major international competitions held annually. Major domestic competitions include the Top 14 in France, the English Premiership in England, the Currie Cup in South Africa, and the ITM Cup in New Zealand. Other transnational competitions include the Celtic League, originally involving Irish, Scottish and Welsh teams and now Italian teams as well; Super Rugby (previously Super 12 and Super 14), involving South African, Australian and New Zealand teams; and the Heineken Cup, involving the top European teams from their respective domestic competitions.



Rugby School in Rugby, Warwickshire, with a rugby football pitch in the foreground

The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823 when William Webb-Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it.[3] Although the evidence for the story is doubtful,[4] it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895.[5] Despite the anecdotal nature of the sport’s origin, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after him. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils then brought to university; Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first ‘football’ team.[6] During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities.[7]

Significant events in the early development of rugby football were the production of the first set of written football laws at Rugby School in 1845,[8] which was followed by the ‘Cambridge Rules‘ drawn up in 1848.[9] Other important events include the Blackheath Club’s decision to leave the Football Association in 1863[10][11] and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.[10] The code was originally known as “rugby football”; it was not until after the schism in England in 1895, which resulted in the separate code of rugby league, that the sport took on the name “rugby union” to differentiate it from the league game.[12] Despite the sport’s full name of rugby union, it is known simply as rugby throughout most of the world.[13][14]

The first rugby football international took place on 27 March 1871, played between England and Scotland.[10] By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, and in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 was also the year the first rugby sevens tournament at Melrose, the Melrose Sevens,[15] which is still held annually. Five years later two important overseas tours took place; a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours;[16] and the 1888 New Zealand Native team brought the first overseas team to British spectators.[17]


James Ryan, captain of the New Zealand Army team, receiving the Kings Cup from George V

Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and then Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics,[18] and were far more successful than critics had expected.[19] The New Zealand 1905 touring team performed a haka before each match, leading Welsh Rugby Union administrator Tom Williams to suggest that Wales player Teddy Morgan lead the crowd in singing the Welsh National Anthem, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, as a response. After Morgan began singing, the crowd joined in: the first time a national anthem was sung at the start of a sporting event.[20] In 1905 France played England in its first international match.[18]

No international rugby games and union-sponsored club matches were played during the First World War, but competitions continued through service teams such as the New Zealand Army team.[21] During the Second World War no international matches played by most countries though Italy, Germany and Romania played a limited number of games,[22][23][24] and Cambridge and Oxford continued their annual University Match.[25]

Rugby union was included as an event in the Olympic Games four times during the early 1900s. In 1973 the first officially sanctioned international sevens tournament took place at Murrayfield, one of Scotland’s biggest stadiums, as part of the Scottish Rugby Union centenary celebrations.[26] In 1987 the first Rugby World Cup was held in New Zealand and Australia, and the inaugural winners were New Zealand. The first World Cup Sevens tournament was held at Murrayfield in 1993. Rugby Sevens was introduced into the Commonwealth Games in 1998 and is due to be added to the Olympic Games by 2016.[27]

Rugby union was an amateur sport until the IRB declared the game ‘open’ in 1995, removing restrictions on payments to players.[28][29] However, the pre-1995 period of rugby union was marked by frequent accusations of “shamateurism“,[30] including an investigation in Britain by a House of Commons Select committee.[31][32] Following the introduction of professionalism trans-national club competitions were started, with the Heineken Cup in the Northern Hemisphere and Super Rugby in the Southern Hemisphere.[33][34] The Tri-nations, an annual international tournament involving South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, kicked off in 1996.[34]

Teams and team structures

Main article: Rugby union positions

A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers.

Each team starts the match with 15 players on the field.[35] Players in a team are divided into eight forwards (two more than in rugby league) and seven backs.[36]


The main responsibilities of the forward players are to gain and retain possession of the ball.[37] Players in these positions are generally bigger and stronger and take part in the scrum and lineout.[37] The forwards are often collectively referred to as the ‘pack’, especially when in the scrum formation.[38]

Front row
The front row consists of three players, two props; the loosehead prop and the tighthead prop, and the hooker. The role of the two props are to support the hooker during scrums, to provide support for the jumpers during lineouts and to provide strength and power in rucks and mauls.[36] The third position in the front row is the hooker.[36] The hooker is a key position in attacking and defensive play and is responsible for winning the ball in the scrum.[36] Hookers normally throw the ball in at lineouts.[36]

Second row
The second row consists of two locks or lock forwards. Locks are usually the tallest players in the team, and specialise as lineout jumpers.[36] The main role of the lock in lineouts is to make a standing jump, often supported by the other forwards, to either collect the thrown ball or ensure the ball comes down on their side. Locks also have an important role in the scrum, binding directly behind the three front row players and providing forward drive.[36]

Facing right a group of seven men, in blue and white hooped jersesy, bind together and crouch to form a scrum, the eighth player stands behind them observing the off-picture opposition.

Sébastien Chabal (far left) in number eight position before entering the scrum

Back row
The back row, not to be confused with ‘Backs’, is the third and final row of the forward positions, they are often referred to as the loose forwards.[38] The three positions in the back row are made up of two flankers and the number 8. The two flanker positions, called the blindside flanker and openside flanker, are the final row in the scrum. Their main role is to win possession through ‘turn overs’.[36] The number 8 packs down between the two flankers at the back of the scrum. His role in the scrum is to control the ball after it has been heeled back from the front of the pack and the position provides a link between the forwards and backs during attacking phases.[39]


The role of the backs is to create and convert point-scoring opportunities, they are generally smaller but faster and more agile than the forwards.[37] Another distinction between the two positions is that the backs are expected to have superior kicking skills, especially in the positions of fly-half and full-back.[37]

The half-backs consist of two positions, the scrum-half/half-back and the fly-half/First Five-Eighth. The fly-half is crucial to a team’s game plan, orchestrating the teams performance.[39] They are usually the first to receive the ball from the scrum-half following a breakdown, lineout or scrum and need to be decisive with what actions to take and be effective at communicating with the outside backs.[39] Many fly-halfs are also their team’s goal kickers. The scrum-half is the link between the forwards and the backs.[39] They receive the ball from the lineout and remove the ball from the back of the scrum, usually passing it to the fly-half.[40] They also feed the scrum and sometimes have to act as a fourth loose forward.[41]

Three quarters
There are four three quarter positions, the inside centre/Second Five-Eighth, outside centre and left and right wings. Like the fly-half they generally possess a good kicking game and are good at reading the play and directing the attack. The centres will attempt to tackle attacking players; whilst in attack they should employ speed and strength to breach opposition defences.[39] The wings are generally positioned on the outside of the backline. Their primary function is to finish off moves and score tries.[42] Wings are usually the fastest players in the team and are either elusive runners, or more commonly in the modern era, big, strong and able to break tackles.[43]

The fullback normally positions himself several metres behind the back line. He fields any opposition kicks and is often the last line of defence should an opponent break through the back line.[39] Two of the most important attributes of a good fullback are dependable catching skills and a good kicking game.[44]


Main article: Rugby union gameplay

Diagram of a rugby union playing field showing the different marked lines and distances.


Rugby union is played between two teams – the one that scores more points wins the game. Points can be scored in several ways: a try, scored by grounding the ball in the in-goal area (between the goal line and the dead ball line), is worth 5 points and a subsequent conversion kick scores 2 points; a successful penalty kick or a drop goal each score 3 points.[45] The values of each of these scoring methods have been changed over the years.[46]

Playing field

The field of play on a rugby pitch is as near as possible to a maximum of 144m long by 70m wide.[47] In actual gameplay there should be a maximum of 100m between the two trylines, with anywhere between 10 and 22m behind each try line to serve as the in-goal area.[47] There are several lines crossing it, notably the half way line and the “twenty two,” which is 22m from the goal line.[47]

Rugby goalposts are H-shaped, and consist of two poles, 5.6m apart, connected by a horizontal crossbar 3m above the ground.[48] The original pitch dimensions were in imperial units, but have since been converted to the metric system.[49][50]

Match structure

At the beginning of the game, the captains and the referee toss a coin to decide which team will kick off first. Play then starts with a drop kick, with the players chasing the ball into the opposition’s territory, and the other side trying to retrieve the ball and advance it. If the player with the ball is tackled, frequently a ruck will result.[51]

Games are divided into 40-minute halves, with a break in the middle.[52] The sides exchange ends of the field after the half-time break.[52] Stoppages for injury or to allow the referee to take disciplinary action do not count as part of the playing time, so that the elapsed time is usually longer than 80 minutes.[52] The referee is responsible for keeping time, even when—as in many professional tournaments—he is assisted by an official time-keeper.[52] If time expires while the ball is in play, the game continues until the ball is “dead”, and only then will the referee blow the whistle to signal half-time or full-time; but if the referee awards a penalty or free-kick, the game continues.[53]

Passing and kicking

Forward passing (throwing the ball ahead to another player) is not allowed; the ball can be passed laterally or backwards.[54] The ball tends to be moved forward in three ways — by kicking, by a player running with it or within a scrum or maul. Only the player with the ball may be tackled or rucked. When a ball is knocked forward by a player with his/her arms, a “knock-on” is committed, and play is restarted with a scrum.[54]

Any player may kick the ball forward in an attempt to gain territory. When a player anywhere in the playing area kicks indirectly into touch so that the ball first bounces in the field of play the throw-in is taken where the ball went into touch.[54] If the player kicks directly into touch (i.e. without bouncing in-field first) from within their own 22 metre line the lineout is taken by the opposition where the ball went into touch, but if the ball is kicked into touch directly by a player outside the 22 metre line the lineout is taken level to where the kick was taken.[55]


A child running away from camera in green and black hooped rugby jersey is in the process of being tackled around the hips and legs by an opponent.A rugby tackle: tackles must be below the neck with the aim of impeding or grounding the player with the ball

The aim of the defending side is to stop the player with the ball, either by bringing them to ground (a tackle, which is frequently followed by a ruck), or by contesting for possession with the ball-carrier on their feet (a maul). Such a circumstance is called a breakdown and each is governed by a specific law.

A player may tackle an opposing player who has the ball by holding them while bringing them to ground. Tacklers cannot tackle above the shoulder (the neck and head are out of bounds),[56] and the tackler has to attempt to wrap their arms around the player being tackled to complete the tackle. It is illegal to push, shoulder-charge, or to trip a player using feet or legs, but hands may be used (this being referred to as a tap-tackle or ankle-tap).[57][58]

Mauls occur after a player with the ball has come into contact with an opponent but the handler remains on his feet; once any combination of at least three players have bound themselves a maul has been set.[38] A ruck is similar to the maul, but in this case the ball has gone to ground with at least three attacking players binding themselves on the ground in an attempt to secure the ball.[38]

Set pieces

Two rows of opposing players, green to the fore, white behind, each aid a jumping player from their team by lifting him towards an off-picture ball travelling overhead.


Ireland and Georgia contesting a lineout in the 2007 Rugby World Cup


When the ball leaves the side of the field, a lineout is awarded against the team which last touched the ball.[59] Forward players from each team line up a metre apart, perpendicular to the touchline and between 5 m and 15 m from the touchline.[59] The ball is thrown from the touchline down the centre of the lines of forwards by a player (usually the hooker) from the team that did not play the ball into touch.[59] The exception to this is when the ball went out from a penalty, in which case the side who gained the penalty throws the ball in.[59]

Both sides compete for the ball and players may lift their teammates.[60] A jumping player cannot be tackled until they stand and only shoulder-to-shoulder contact is allowed; deliberate infringement of this law is dangerous play, and results in a penalty kick.[61]


Main article: Scrum (rugby union)

Two opposing formations of eight men, in white and black to the left, red and black to the right, push against each other in a crouched position; behind them stands another player and the referee.A scrum

A scrum is a way of restarting the game safely and fairly after a minor infringement.[62] It is awarded when the ball has been knocked or passed forward, if a player takes the ball over his own try line and puts the ball down, when a player is accidentally offside or when the ball is trapped in a ruck or maul with no realistic chance of being retrieved. A team may also opt for a scrum if awarded a penalty.[62]

A scrum is formed by the eight forwards from each team binding together in three rows.[62] The front row consists of the two props (loosehead and tighthead) either side of the hooker.[62] The second row consists of two locks and the two flankers. Behind the second row is the number 8. This formation is known as the 3–4–1 formation.[63] Once a scrum is formed the scrum-half from the team awarded the feed throws the ball into the gap between the two front-rows known as the tunnel.[62] The two hookers then compete for possession by hooking the ball backwards with their feet, while each pack tries to push the opposing pack backwards to help gain possession.[62] The side that wins possession transfers the ball to the back of the scrum, where it is picked up either by the number 8 or by the scrum-half.[62]

Officials and offences

There are three match officials: a referee, and two assistant referees.[64] The latter, formerly known as touch judges, had the primary function of indicating when the ball had gone “touch”; their role has been expanded and they are now expected to assist the referee in a number of areas, such as watching for foul play and checking off-side lines.[64] In addition, for matches in high level competitions, there is often a television match official (TMO; popularly called the “video referee”), to assist with certain decisions, linked up to the referee by radio.[65] The referees have a system of hand signals to indicate their decisions.[66]

Common offences include tackling above the shoulders, collapsing a scrum, ruck or maul, not releasing the ball when on the ground, or being off-side.[67] The non-offending team has a number of options when awarded a penalty: a “tap” kick, when the ball is kicked a very short distance from hand, allowing the kicker to regather the ball and run with it; a punt, when the ball is kicked a long distance from hand, for field position; a place-kick, when the kicker will attempt to score a goal; or a scrum.[67] Players may be sent off (signalled by a red card) or temporarily suspended (“sin-binned”) for ten minutes (yellow card) for foul play or repeated infringements, and may not be replaced.[67]

Occasionally, infringements are not caught by the referee during the match and these may be “cited” by the citing commissioner after the match and have punishments (usually suspension for a number of weeks) imposed on the infringing player.[68]

Replacements and substitutions

During the match, players may be replaced (for injury) or substituted (for tactical reasons).[35] A player who has been replaced may not rejoin play unless he was temporarily replaced to have bleeding controlled; a player who has been substituted may return temporarily, to replace a player who has a blood injury, or permanently, if he is replacing a front-row forward.[35] In international matches, up to seven replacements are allowed; in domestic or cross-border tournaments, at the discretion of the responsible national union(s), the number may be increased to eight, of whom three must be sufficiently trained and experienced to provide cover for the three front row positions.[69]


An oval shaped synthetic ball, white in colour with red trim, adorned with the manufacturers name.A synthetic rugby ball

Main article: Rugby union equipment

The most basic items of equipment for a game of rugby union are the ball itself, a rugby shirt (also known as a “jersey”), rugby shorts, socks and boots. The rugby ball is oval in shape, (technically a prolate spheroid), and is made up of four panels.[70] The ball was historically made of leather, but in the modern era most games use a ball made from a synthetic material. The IRB lays out specific dimensions for the ball, 280-300mm in length, 740-770mm in circumference of length and 580-620mm in circumference of width.[70] Rugby boots have soles with studs to allow grip on the turf of the pitch. The studs may be either metal or plastic but must not have any sharp edges or ridges.[71]

Protective equipment is optional and strictly regulated. The most common items are mouthguards, which are worn by almost all players, and are compulsory in some rugby-playing nations.[72] Other protective items that are permitted include a head gear; thin (not more than 10 mm thick), non-rigid shoulder pads, and shin guards; which are worn underneath socks.[73] Bandages or tape can be worn to support or protect injuries; some players wear tape around the head to protect the ears in scrums and rucks. Female players may also wear chest pads.[73] Although not worn for protection, some types of fingerless mitts are allowed to aid grip.[73]

It is the responsibility of the match officials to check players’ clothing and equipment before a game to ensure that it conforms to the laws of the game.[74]

Governing bodies

Member and Associated Unions

  Member Union
  Associated Union

The international governing body of rugby union (and associated games such as sevens) is the International Rugby Board (IRB).[75] The IRB headquarters are in Dublin, Ireland.[75] The IRB, founded in 1886, governs the sport worldwide and publishes the game’s laws and rankings.[75] As of November 2010 the IRB recorded 118 unions in its membership, either full members or associate member countries.[76] According to the IRB, rugby union is played by men and women in over 100 countries.[75] The IRB controls the Rugby World Cup,[75] the Women’s Rugby World Cup,[77] Rugby World Cup Sevens,[78] IRB Sevens World Series,[79] Junior World Championship,[80] Junior World Trophy,[81] Nations Cup[82] and the Pacific Nations Cup.[83] The IRB holds votes to decide where each of these events are be held, except in the case of the Sevens World Series for which the IRB contracts with several national unions to hold individual events.

Six regional associations, which are members of the IRB, form the next level of administration; these are:

SANZAR (South Africa, New Zealand and Australia Rugby) is a joint venture of the South African Rugby Union, the New Zealand Rugby Union and the Australian Rugby Union that operates Super Rugby and The Rugby Championship (formerly the Tri Nations before the entry of Argentina).[90] Although the Argentine Rugby Union initially has no representation on the SANZAR board, it has been granted input into the organisation’s issues, especially with regard to The Rugby Championship.[91]

National unions oversee rugby union within individual countries and are affiliated to the IRB. The IRB Council has 26 seats. Each of the eight foundation unions – Scotland, Ireland, Wales, England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and France – has two seats, and Argentina, Canada, Italy, Japan and the six regional associations each have one seat.[75]

Global reach

An airborne player wearing a hooped blue and yellow jersey is challenged by two opponents after leaping to catch a high ball.URBA Rugby 2007 Finals

Germany playing Belgium

A group of thirteen supporters pose together, some wearing rugby jerseys while others sport traditional Japanese costumes and Japanese flags.

Japanese and Welsh rugby fans in Cardiff, Wales


The earliest countries to adopt rugby union were England, the country of inception, followed by the other three Home Nations, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. The spread of rugby union as a global sport has its roots in the exporting of the game by British expatriates, military personnel and over-seas university students. A rugby club was formed in Sydney, Australia in 1864; while the sport was said to have been introduced to New Zealand by Charles Munro in 1870, who played rugby while a student at Christ’s College, Finchley.[10] The first rugby club in France was formed by British residents in Le Havre in 1872, while the next year Argentina recorded its first game: ‘Banks’ v ‘City’ in Buenos Aires.[92] In North America a club formed in Montreal in 1868, Canada’s first club. The city of Montreal also played its part in the introduction of the sport in the United States, when students of McGill University played against a team from Harvard University in 1874.[10][92] In 1875 rugby was introduced to South Africa by British soldiers garrisoned in Cape Town.[92]

Several island states have embraced the sport of rugby, many introduced by British service personnel, but later spread the game to neighbouring countries as they searched for international opponents. Rugby was first played in Fiji circa 1884 by European and Fijian soldiers of the Native Constabulary at Ba on Viti Levu island.[93][94] Fiji then sent their first overseas team to Samoa in 1924, who in turn set up their own union in 1927.[95] Other countries to have national rugby teams in Oceania include the Cook Islands, Niue, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.[96]

Although the exact date of arrival of rugby union in Trinidad and Tobago is unknown, their first club Northern RFC was formed in 1923, a national team was playing by 1927 and due to a cancelled tour to British Guiana in 1933, switched their venue to Barbados; introducing rugby to the island.[97][98] Other Atlantic countries to play rugby union include Jamaica[99] and Bermuda.[100]

The spread of rugby union in Europe has been sporadic. Historically, due to the lack of international games between the British and Irish home teams, who were more interested in facing the Southern Hemisphere giants of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the rest of Europe were forced to create a ‘second tier’ of international rugby matches. As a mainland country and during a period when they had been isolated by the British and Irish Unions, France became the only European team from the top tier to regularly play the other European countries; mainly Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Romania, Poland, Italy and Czechoslovakia.[87][101] In 1934, instigated by the French Rugby Federation, FIRA (Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur) was formed to organise rugby union outside the authority of the IRB.[87] The founding members were Italy, Romania, Netherlands, Catalonia, Portugal, Czechoslovakia, and Sweden. Other European rugby playing nations of note include Russia, whose first officially recorded match is marked by an encounter between Dynamo Moscow and the Moscow Institute of Physical Education in 1933.[102] Rugby union in Portugal also took hold between the First and Second World Wars, with a Portuguese National XV set up in 1922 and an official championship started in 1927.[103]

Although Argentina is the most well known rugby playing nation in South America, founding the Argentine Rugby Union in 1899,[104] several other countries on the continent also have a long history. Rugby had been played in Brazil from the end of the 19th century, but the game was played regularly only from 1926, when São Paulo beat Santos in an inter-city match.[105] It took Uruguay several aborted attempts to adapt to rugby, led mainly by the efforts of the Montevideo Cricket Club; succeeding in 1951 with the formation of a national league and four clubs.[106] Other South American countries to have set up a rugby union include Chile (1948),[107] and Paraguay (1968).[108]

In a blue display cabinet is a bell shaped silver cup which is heavily engraved with patterns; it is adorned on its lid with a small silver elephant and both its large handles are silver cobras.The Calcutta Cup, the oldest international rugby trophy.

Many Asian countries have a tradition of playing rugby going back to the time of the British Empire. India began playing rugby in the early 1870s, the Calcutta Football Club forming in 1872. After the withdrawal of the British military from the area at the end of the decade, rugby in India faltered. India’s lasting legacy to the sport was the presentation of the Calcutta Cup to the Rugby Football Union; the world’s oldest international rugby trophy which is played for annually between England and Scotland.[109] Sri Lanka claims to have founded their union in 1878, and although little official information from the period is available, the team won the All-India cup in Madras in 1920.[110] Malaysia also suffers from poor record keeping. Historically the first recorded match in Malaysia was in 1892, but the first confirmation of rugby is the existence of the HMS Malaya Cup which, named after the ship HMS Malaya, was first presented in 1922 and is still awarded to the winners of the Malay sevens.[111] Rugby union was introduced to Japan in 1899 by Ginnosuke Tanaka a student of Trinity Hall, Cambridge and Edward Bramwell Clarke, who studied at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.[112][113] The Japan RFU was founded in 1926 and its place in rugby history was cemented with the news that Japan will host the 2019 World Cup.[114] It will be the first country outside the Commonwealth, Ireland and France to host the event, and is viewed by the IRB as an opportunity for rugby union to extend its reach,[114] particularly in Asia. Other Asian playing countries of note include Singapore, South Korea and China, while the former British colony of Hong Kong is notable within rugby for its development of the rugby sevens game, especially the Hong Kong Sevens tournament which was founded in 1976.[115]

A close up shot of the Ivory Coast players, in their country's orange jerseys, entering the field from the dressing room tunnel.The Ivory Coast national team before their CAN Rugby World Cup 2011 qualifier vs. Zambia on 21 July 2008.

Rugby in the Middle East and the Gulf States has its history in the 1950s, with clubs formed by British and French Services stationed in the region after the Second World War.[116] When these servicemen left, the clubs and teams were kept alive by young professionals, mostly Europeans, working in these countries. The official union of Oman was formed in 1971, with His Majesty Qaboos bin Said al Said as Patron.[117] Bahrain founded its union a year later, while in 1975 the Dubai Sevens, the Gulf’s leading rugby tournament, was created by the Dubai Exiles Rugby Club. Rugby remains a minority sport in the region with Israel, as of 2011, being the only member union from the Middle East to be included in the IRB World Rankings.[118]

Rugby union in Africa was spread in the late 19th and early 20th century mainly by settlers and colonials who often adopted a ‘whites-only’ policy to playing the game. This resulted in rugby being viewed as a bourgeois sport by the indigenous people with limited appeal.[119] The earliest countries to see the playing of competitive rugby include South Africa, and neighbouring Rhodesia (modern day Zimbabwe), which formed the Rhodesia Rugby Football Union in 1895.[120] With the collapse of colonial rule, the popularity of rugby waned, but in more recent times the sport has been embraced by several African nations. In the early 21st century Madagascar has experienced crowds of 40,000 at national matches,[121] while Namibia, whose history of rugby can be traced back to 1915, have qualified for the final stages of the World Cup four times since 1999.[122] Other African nations to be represented in the IRB World Rankings as Member Unions include Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.[118] South Africa and Kenya are among the 12 “core teams” that participate in every event of the IRB Sevens World Series.[123]

At least six countries have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport; they are Fiji,[124] Georgia,[125] New Zealand,[126] Samoa,[127] Tonga[128] and Wales.[129]

Women’s rugby union

A female player in yellow and green kit and wearing a white scrum cap, jumps to collect a ball while supported by team mates.US women’s rugby: NC Hustlers vs. Midwest II

Records of women’s rugby football go back to the late 19th century, with the first documented source being Emily Valentine’s writings, stating that she set up a rugby team in Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, Ireland in 1887.[130] Although there are reports of early women’s matches in New Zealand and France, one of the first notable games to prove primary evidence was the 1917 war-time encounter between Cardiff Ladies and Newport Ladies; a photo of which shows the Cardiff team before the match at the Cardiff Arms Park.[131] In the past 30 years the game has grown in popularity among female athletes, and, according to the IRB, is now played in over 100 countries.[132]

The English based Women’s Rugby Football Union (WRFU), responsible for women’s rugby in England, Scotland Ireland and Wales, was founded in 1983, and is the oldest formally organised national governing body for women’s rugby.[133] This was replaced in 1994 by the Rugby Football Union for Women (RFUW) in England with each of the other Home Nations governing their own countries.[133] The premier international competition in rugby union for women is the Women’s Rugby World Cup, first held in 1991.[134] Since 1994 it has been held every four years.[134]

Major international competitions

An avenue of trees leads to a large iron lattice tower, in which an oversized rugby ball hangs within the lower sections.

A giant rugby ball is suspended from the Eiffel Tower to commemorate France’s hosting of the 2007 Rugby World Cup

The most important tournament in rugby union is the Rugby World Cup, a men’s tournament that takes place every four years among the national rugby union teams. New Zealand is the current holder, winning the 2011 tournament held in New Zealand, beating France 8-7 in the final.[135] No World Cup winner has yet retained the trophy.[136] England were the first team from the Northern Hemisphere to win, the previous champions being New Zealand (1987), Australia (1991 and 1999), South Africa (1995 and 2007).[136] Major international competitions are the Six Nations Championship and the Tri Nations Series, held in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres respectively.[137]

The Six Nations is an annual competition involving the European teams England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.[138] Each country plays the other five once. After the initial internationals between England and Scotland, Ireland and Wales began competing in the 1880s, forming the Home International Championships.[138] France joined the tournament in the 1900s and in 1910 the term Five Nations first appeared.[138] However, the Home Nations (England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales) excluded France in 1931 amid a run of poor results, allegations of professionalism and concerns over on-field violence.[139] France then rejoined in 1939–1940, though World War II halted proceedings for a further eight years.[138] France has played in all the tournaments since WWII, the first of which was played in 1947.[138] In 2000, Italy became the sixth nation in the contest and Rome’s Stadio Flaminio, where their games are played, is the smallest venue in the tournament.[140] The reigning Six Nations champions are England, who won four of their games but lost 24–8 to Ireland, and therefore failing to get the grand slam.[141]

The Rugby Championship is the new name of the Southern Hemisphere’s annual international series for that region’s top national teams. From its inception in 1996 through 2011, it was known as the Tri Nations, as it featured the hemisphere’s traditional powers of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.[142] These teams have dominated world rankings in recent years, and many considered the Tri Nations to be the toughest competition in international rugby.[143][144] The Tri Nations was initially played on a home and away basis with the three nations playing each other twice. In 2006 a new system was introduced where each nation plays the others three times, though in 2007 and 2011 the teams played each other only twice, as both were World Cup years.[142] Since Argentina’s strong performances in the 2007 World Cup, a number of commentators believed they should join the Tri-Nations,[145] which came closer to reality after the 2009 Tri Nations tournament, when SANZAR (South Africa, New Zealand and Australian Rugby) extended an official invitation to the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) to join an expanded Four Nations tournament in 2012.[146] The competition has been officially rechristened as The Rugby Championship beginning with the 2012 edition. The competition will revert to the Tri Nations’ original home-and-away format, but now involving four teams.

Rugby tours

During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents rarely met. The first two notable tours both took place in 1888, the British Isles to New Zealand and Australia[147] which was followed by a New Zealand team touring Europe.[148] Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, and the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.[149] Tours would last for months, due to long traveling times and the number of games undertaken; the 1888 New Zealand team began their tour in Hawkes Bay in June and did not complete their schedule until August 1889, having played 107 rugby matches.[150] Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national, club and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby.[147][151]

Rugby within international tournaments

Rugby union was played at the Olympic Games in 1900, 1908, 1920 and 1924.[152] As per Olympic rules, the nations of Scotland, Wales and England were not allowed to play separately as they are not sovereign states. In 1900, France won the gold, beating Great Britain 27 points to 8 and defeating Germany 27 points to 17.[152] In 1908, Australasia defeated Great Britain, claiming the gold medal, the score being 32 points to three.[152] In 1920, the United States, fielding a team with many players new to the sport of rugby, upset France in a shock win, eight points to zero. In 1924, the United States again defeated France 17 to 3, becoming the only team to win gold twice in the sport.[152] In 2009 the International Olympic Committee voted with a majority of 81 to 8 that rugby union be reinstated as an Olympic sport in at least the 2016 and 2020 games, but in the sevens, 4-day tournament format.[27][153] This is something the rugby world has aspired to for a long time and Bernard Lapasset, president of the International Rugby Board, said the Olympic gold medal would be considered to be “the pinnacle of our sport” (Rugby Sevens).[154]

Rugby sevens has been played at the Commonwealth Games since the 1998 Games in Kuala Lumpur.[155] The present gold medal holders are New Zealand who have won the competition on four successive occasions.[156] Rugby union has also been an Asian Games event since the 1998 games in Bangkok, Thailand. In the 1998 and 2002 editions of the games, both the usual fifteen-a-side variety and rugby sevens were played, but from 2006 onwards, only rugby sevens was retained. In 2010, the women’s rugby sevens event was introduced. The event is likely to remain a permanent fixture of the Asian Games due to elevation of rugby sevens as an Olympic sport from the 2016 Olympics onwards. The present gold medal holders in the sevens tournament, held in 2010, are Japan in the male event and Kazakhstan in the women’s.[157][158]

Women’s international rugby

Women’s international rugby union began in 1982, with a match between France and Netherlands played in Utrecht.[159] As of 2009 over six hundred women’s internationals have been played by over forty different nations.[160]

The first Women’s Rugby World Cup was held in Wales in 1991, and was won by the United States.[134] The second tournament took place in 1994, and since that date the competition has been held every four years. The New Zealand Women’s team have won the last four World Cups (1998, 2002, 2006, 2010).[161]

As well as the Women’s Rugby World Cup there are also other regular tournaments, including a Six Nations, run in parallel to the men’s competition. The Women’s Six Nations, first played in 1996 has been dominated by England, who have won the tournament on 12 occasions, including a run of six consecutive wins from 2006 to 2011.[162]


On a sunlit beach two teams of players, one in yellow the other in blue, play a form of rugby; the central yellow player runs forward clutching the ball with one hand, close to his chest.Beach Rugby match

The game of rugby union has spawned several variants of the full-contact, 15-a-side code. The two more common differences applied to the variants of the sport lie in either fewer players or reduced player contact. Of the variants, the oldest is Rugby sevens (7’s, or VIIs), a fast-paced variant which originated in Melrose, Scotland in 1883. In rugby sevens, there are only seven players per side, and each half is normally seven minutes. Major tournaments include the Hong Kong Sevens and Dubai Sevens, both held in areas not normally associated with the highest levels of the 15-a-side game. A more recent variant of the sport is Rugby tens (10’s or Xs), a Malaysian variant with ten players per side.[163]

Due to the physical nature of playing rugby, several variants have been created to introduce the sport to children with a reduced level of physical contact.[164] Of these versions, Touch rugby, in which “tackles” are made by simply touching the ball carrier with two hands, is popular as a mixed sex version of the sport played by both children and adults.[165][166] Tag Rugby, is a version in which the participants wear a belt with two hook-and-loop fastener tags, the removal of either counting as a ‘tackle’. Tag Rugby also varies in the fact that kicking the ball is not allowed.[167] Mini rugby is another variant of rugby union aimed at fostering the sport in children.[168][169] It is played with only nine players and on a smaller pitch.[170] Similar to Tag Rugby, American Flag Rugby, (AFR), is a mixed gender, non-contact imitation of rugby union designed for American children entering grades K-9.[171] Both American Flag Rugby and Mini Rugby differ to Tag Rugby in that they introduce more advanced elements of rugby union as the participants age.[170]

Other less formal variants include beach rugby and snow rugby.[164][172]

Influence on other sports

A grainy black and white photo of teams in sports jerseys and light padding contesting a play near the touchline, while watched by officials, coaches and crowds.A game of American football between the University of Michigan and the University of Minnesota (1902). Earlier forms of the game had a more obvious kinship with their rugby equivalents.

Rugby union football, and its immediate ancestor rugby football, has had a strong influence on several other sports. The Gridiron codes, American football[173][174] and Canadian football,[175] are derived from early forms of rugby. Confusingly, in Canada, Canadian football has also frequently been referred to as “rugby football“,[175] and a number of national and provincial bodies were called “Rugby Football Unions” or “Rugby Unions”, such as the Ontario and Quebec Rugby Football Unions.[175] For example, in the Encyclopedia Canadiana, the entry Rugby Football begins by referring to “the Canadian development of rugby union or “English rugger” introduced into Canada in the third quarter of the nineteenth century”, but later states that “the Canadian game is a radical departure from rugby union”.[175]

Australian rules football has been influenced by a large number of sports, including Gaelic football, rugby football and cricket. Many authors believe that the primary influence was rugby football and other other games originating in English public schools.[176] Tom Wills, who is recognised as one of the pioneers of Australian Rules, also attended Rugby School.[177]

James Naismith took aspects of many sports including rugby to invent basketball.[178] The most obvious contribution is the jump ball‘s similarity to the lineout as well as the underhand shooting style that dominated the early years of the sport. Naismith played many years of rugby at McGill University.[179]

Swedish football was a code whose rules were a mix of the association football rules and the rugby football rules. Some played the game with a round ball, while others played with an oval ball.[180] It is no longer played.[181]

Rugby lends its name to wheelchair rugby (also known as “quad rugby” or “murderball”), but the sport is more strongly influenced by wheelchair basketball, ice hockey and handball than rugby union.[182]

Statistics and records

According to a 2011 report by the Centre for the International Business of Sport at Coventry University, there are now over five million people playing rugby union or one of its variants organised by the IRB.[183] This is an increase of 19 percent since the previous report in 2007.[184] The report also claimed that since 2007 participation has grown by 33 percent in Africa, 22 percent in South America and 18 percent in Asia and North America.[184]

Rugby union’s premier event, the Rugby World Cup, has continued to grow since its inception in 1987.[185] The first tournament, in which 16 teams competed for the title, was broadcast to 17 countries with an accumulated total of 230 million television viewers.[185] Ticket sales during the pool stages and finals of the same tournament was less than a million.[185] The 2007 World Cup was contested by 94 countries with ticket sales of 3,850,000 over the pool and final stage.[185] The accumulated television audience for the event, then broadcast to 200 countries, was 4.2 billion.[185]

The most capped international player from the tier 1 nations is Australian halfback George Gregan with 139 caps.[186] While the top scoring tier 1 international player is New Zealand’s Dan Carter, who has amassed 1250 points during his career.[187] In April 2010 Lithuania broke the record of consecutive international wins previously held by New Zealand and South Africa,which was 17 consecutive wins against tier 1 nations,[188] with their 18th win in tier 2 in a match against Serbia.[189] The highest scoring international match between two recognised unions was Hong Kong’s 164–13 victory over Singapore on 27 October 1994[190] While the largest winning margin of 152 points is held by two countries, Japan (a 155–3 win over Chinese Taipei) and Argentina (152–0 over Paraguay) both in 2002.[190]

Rugby union in culture

An oil painting of two groups of a pair of moustached men wearing stripped jerseys and shorts, contesting a rugby ball within an avenue of trees.Henri Rousseau – The Football Players (1908)

Thomas Hughes 1857 novel Tom Brown’s Schooldays, set at Rugby School, includes a rugby football match, also portrayed in the 1940s film of the same name. James Joyce mentions Irish team Bective Rangers in several of his works, including Ulysses (1922) and Finnegans Wake (1939), while his 1916 semi-autobiographical work A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man has an account of Ireland international James Magee.[191] Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, in his 1924 Sherlock Holmes tale The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire, mentions that Dr Watson played rugby for Blackheath.[192]

Henri Rousseau‘s 1908 work Joueurs de football shows two pairs of rugby players competing.[193] Other French artists to have represented the sport in their works include Albert GleizesLes Joueurs de football (1912), Robert Delaunay‘s Football. L’Equipe de Cardiff (1916) and André Lhote‘s Partie de Rugby (1917).[194] The 1928 Gold Medal for Art at the Antwerp Olympics was won by Luxembourg’s Jean Jacoby for his work Rugby.[195]

In film, Ealing Studios’ 1949 comedy A Run for Your Money and the 1979 BBC Wales television film Grand Slam both centre on fans attending a match.[196] Films that explore the sport in more detail include independent production Old Scores (1991) and Forever Strong (2008). Invictus (2009), based on John Carlin‘s book Playing the Enemy, explores the events of the 1995 Rugby World Cup and Nelson Mandela’s attempt to use the sport to connect South Africa’s people post-apartheid.[197][198]

In public art and sculpture there are many works dedicated to the sport. There is a 27 ft bronze statue of a rugby line-out by pop artist Gerald Laing at Twickenham[199] and one of rugby administrator Sir Tasker Watkins at the Millennium Stadium.[200] Rugby players to have been honoured with statues include Gareth Edwards in Cardiff and Danie Craven in Stellenbosch.[201]

See also


  1. ^ Else, David (2007). British language & culture (2nd ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 97. ISBN 186450286X.
  2. ^ “Origins of Rugby – Codification “The innovation of running with the ball was introduced some time between 1820 and 1830.””. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  3. ^ “Webb Ellis, William”. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
  4. ^ “Flotsam”. QI. BBC. BBC One. 9 January 2009. No. 3, series F.
  5. ^ Davies, Sean (10 August 2007). “William Webb Ellis – fact or fiction?”. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  6. ^ Marshall 1951, p. 13
  7. ^ Marshall 1951, pp. 13–14
  8. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 9
  9. ^ “Early Laws”. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d e Godwin 1981, p. 10
  11. ^ “The History of Football”. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  12. ^ Tony Collins (2006). “Schism 1893–1895”. Rugby’s great split: class, culture and the origins of rugby league football (2nd ed.). Routlage. pp. 87–120. ISBN 0-415-39616-6.
  13. ^ “Warwickshire and Rugby Football”. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  14. ^ McGaughey, William. “A Short History of Civilization IV”. Five Epochs of Civilization: Chapter 7 (2000). Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  15. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 12
  16. ^ “1888 Australia & New Zealand”. The British and irish Lions. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  17. ^ Ryan, Greg (1993). Forerunners of the All Blacks. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-908812-30-2.
  18. ^ a b Godwin 1981, p. 18
  19. ^ Thomas 1954, p. 27 “When they arrived in this country [Britain] they were regarded as an unknown quantity, but it was not anticipated that they would give the stronger British teams a great deal of opposition. The result of the very first match against Devon was regarded as a foregone conclusion by most British followers.”
  20. ^ “The anthem in more recent years”. BBC Cymru Wales history. BBC Cymru Wales. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
  21. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 19
  22. ^ Italy tour – Bucharest, 14 April 1940 Romania vs Italy,
  23. ^ Italy tour – Stuttgart, 5 May 1940 Germany vs Italy,
  24. ^ Romania tour – Milan, 2 May 1942 Italy vs Romania,
  25. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 22
  26. ^ “Rugby in the Olympics: Future”. IRB. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  27. ^ a b Klein, Jeff (13 August 2009). “I.O.C. Decision Draws Cheers and Complaints From Athletes”. The New York Times. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  28. ^ Stubbs 2009, p. 118
  29. ^ “History of the RFU”. RFU. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  30. ^ “Ontario: The Shamateurs”. TIME. 29 September 1947. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  31. ^ Rentoul, John (17 March 1995). “Amateur status attacked by MPs – Sport – The Independent”. The Independent (London: INM). ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  32. ^ “History of Rugby Union”. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  33. ^ “European Rugby Cup: History”. ERC. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
  34. ^ a b Gaynor, Bryan (21 April 2001). “Union’s off-field game a real winner”. New Zealand Herald.
  35. ^ a b c “Law 3 Number of Players” (PDF). IRB. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h “A Beginner’s Guide to Rugby Union”. IRB. p. 6. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  37. ^ a b c d “Rugby Union Positions”. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  38. ^ a b c d “Rugby Glossary”. ESPN Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  39. ^ a b c d e f “A Beginner’s Guide to Rugby Union”. IRB. p. 7. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  40. ^ “A Beginner’s Guide to Rugby Union”. IRB. p. 8. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  41. ^ Bompa 1981, p. 62
  42. ^ Brown, Guthrie and Growden (2010).
  43. ^ Ferguson, David (7 January 2006). “Scottish rugby welcomes back Lomu”. Scotsman. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  44. ^ MacDonald, H. F. (1938). Rugger Practice and Tactics – A Manual of Rugby Football Technique. p. 97.
  45. ^ “Law 9 Method of Scoring” (PDF). IRB. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  46. ^ “Scoring through the ages”. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  47. ^ a b c “Law 1: The Ground” (PDF). IRB. p. 21. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  48. ^ “Law 1 The Ground”. IRB. p. 1.4(a-b). Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  49. ^ “A beginner’s guide to … rugby laws”. BBC. 31 January 2000. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  50. ^ Although the dimensions of the field have been converted to the metric system, some commentators still use the old imperial measures when referring to specific laws.
  51. ^ Midgley, Ruth (1979). The Official World Encyclopedia of Sports and Games. London: Diagram Group. p. 394. ISBN 0-7092-0153-2.
  52. ^ a b c d “Law 5: Time” (PDF). IRB. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  53. ^ “Law 5 – Time”. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  54. ^ a b c “Law 12 Knock-on ot Throw Forward”. IRB. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  55. ^ “Law 19 Touch and Lineout”. IRB. p. 19.1(e-h). Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  56. ^ “Law 10 Foul play”. IRB. p. 10.4(e). Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  57. ^ “Law 10 Foul play”. IRB. p. 10.4(d). Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  58. ^ “Law 10 Foul play”. IRB. p. 10.4(g). Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  59. ^ a b c d “Law 19 Touch and Lineout”. IRB. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  60. ^ “Law 19 Touch and Lineout”. IRB. p. 19.10. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  61. ^ “Law 19 Touch and Lineout”. IRB. p. 19.8(p). Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g “Law 20 Scrum”. IRB. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  63. ^ “Forming a scrum”. BBC Sport. 14 September 2005. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  64. ^ a b “Law 6: Match officials” (PDF). IRB. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  65. ^ Bills, Peter (15 March 2011). “Peter Bills: Refereeing protocol rules over common sense”. The Independent. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  66. ^ “Referee Signals”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  67. ^ a b c “Law 10: Foul Play” (PDF). IRB. p. 70. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  68. ^ “European Club Rugby: Key Tournament Rules”. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  69. ^ “IRB acts on uncontested scrums”. IRB. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  70. ^ a b “Law 2 The Ball”. IRB. p. 27. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  71. ^ “Law 4 Players’ clothing (4.3b)”. IRB. p. 40. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  72. ^ “Protect Your Assets: Mouthguards”. coaching Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  73. ^ a b c “Regulation 12 Provisions relating to player dress” (PDF). Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  74. ^ “4.5 Inspection of players’ clothing)”. IRB. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  75. ^ a b c d e f “IRB Organisation”. IRB. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  76. ^ “Iran becomes 118th IRB Member Union”. IRB. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  77. ^ “IRB Women’s Rugby World Cup”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  78. ^ “Russia to host 2013 Rugby World Cup Sevens”. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  79. ^ “Rules”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  80. ^ “Chile to host IRB Junior World Trophy”. 31 August 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  81. ^ “IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  82. ^ “Nations Cup”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  83. ^ “Pacific Nations Cup”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  84. ^ “African Rugby unveils blueprint for growth”. 24 December 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  85. ^ “HSBC extends commitment to Asian rugby”. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  86. ^ “About North America Caribbean Rugby Association “NACRA””. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  87. ^ a b c “FIRA-AER History”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  88. ^ “FORU Mission”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  89. ^ “Confederación Sudamericana de Rugby (CONSUR)”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  90. ^ “SANZAR Boss Peters defends TriNations timing”. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  91. ^ Mortimer, James (9 November 2011). “SANZAR remains intact”. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  92. ^ a b c Godwin 1981, p. 11
  93. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 74
  94. ^ Davies, Sean (29 September 2006). “Fire and flair: Fijian rugby”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  95. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 174
  96. ^ “Member Unions”. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  97. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 160
  98. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 43
  99. ^ “Jamaica”. IRB. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  100. ^ “Bermuda”. IRB. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  101. ^ Dine, Philip (2001). French Rugby Football. Oxford: Berg. pp. 79–94. ISBN 1-85973-327-1.
  102. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 148
  103. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 130
  104. ^ Davies, Sean (16 November 2009). “Puma power: Argentinian rugby”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  105. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 48
  106. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 166
  107. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 58
  108. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 127
  109. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 92
  110. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 152
  111. ^ Godwin 1981, pp. 112–113
  112. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 105
  113. ^ Davies, Sean (12 February 2007). “Eastern Promise: Japanese rugby”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  114. ^ a b “England will host 2015 World Cup”. BBC Sport. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  115. ^ “HSBC join Cathay as Hong Kong Sevens sponsors”. IRB. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  116. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 42
  117. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 126
  118. ^ a b “IRB World Rankings”. IRB. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  119. ^ Kamau, Michael Mundia. “A Review of Kenyan Rugby”. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  120. ^ Godwin 1981, p. 15
  121. ^ Cocks, Tim (26 November 2005). “Madagascar rugby inspires new passion”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  122. ^ Davies, Sean (4 September 2010). “Namibia rugby: Out of Boks’ shadow”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  123. ^ “Teams announced for Gold Coast kickoff” (Press release). International Rugby Board. 8 September 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  124. ^ Davies, Sean (13 October 2005). “Fire and flair: Fijian rugby”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  125. ^ “Scene set for an exciting Junior Trophy”. IRB. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  126. ^ Gerrard, D.F.; Waller, A.E.; Bird, Y.N. (1994). “The New Zealand Rugby Injury and Performance Project: II. Previous injury experience of a rugby-playing cohort”. British Medical Journal. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  127. ^ “Sititi targets pool’s big fish”. BBC Sport. 26 September 2003. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  128. ^ “Exporter Guide: Tonga”. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise. 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  129. ^ Davies, John; Jenkins, Nigel; Baines, Menna et al, eds. (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 782. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6.
  130. ^ “Emily Valentine: First Lady Of Irish And World Rugby”. 20 January 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  131. ^ Davies, D.E. (1975). Cardiff Rugby Club, History and Statistics 1876–1975. Risca: The Starling Press. pp. 70–71. ISBN 0950442100.
  132. ^ “Great potential for Women’s Rugby in Japan”. IRB. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  133. ^ a b “RFUW: A Brief History”. RFU. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  134. ^ a b c “Women’s Rugby World Cup history”. IRB. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  135. ^ “2011 Rugby World Cup final: New Zealand 8-7 France”. BBC News. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  136. ^ a b “Rugby World Cup History – World Cup Winners List”. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  137. ^ “Rugby Trophys”. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  138. ^ a b c d e “Six Nations Championship: History”. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  139. ^ “Six Nations Championship”. ESPN Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  140. ^ “Stadio Flaminio”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  141. ^ Standley, James (19 March 2011). “2011 Six Nations: Ireland 24–8 England”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  142. ^ a b “TriNations Rugby”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  143. ^ Harmse, J.J. (30 June 2010). “NZ expect aerial bombardment”. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  144. ^ “Preview: South Africa v Australia”. Planet Rugby. 365 Media. 26 August 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
  145. ^ “Argentina invited to join Tri-Nations series”. CNN. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  146. ^ “IRB welcomes Argentina Four Nations Invite”. IRB. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  147. ^ a b “The History”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  148. ^ “IRB Hall of Fame Welcomes Five Inductees”. International Rugby Board. 23 November 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  149. ^ Griffiths 1987, p. ix “In the first century of rugby union’s history the IRB only recognised matches with international status if both teams in a match came from a small pool of countries: Australia, British Lions, England, France, Ireland, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa and Wales.”
  150. ^ “New Zealand Natives’ rugby tour of 1888-9”. New Zealand History Online. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  151. ^ “Take a trip down memory lane courtesy of our historian John Griffiths”. 23 November 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2011. “October 1: The original Wallabies beat a strong Gloucestershire XV 16-0 at Kingsholm, 2 October: The Invincible Second All Blacks have their toughest tour assignment when they are considered lucky to scrape home 13-10 against a star-studded Newport XV, 2 October: Argentina serve notice of their rapidly rising rugby stock by beating a Cardiff side captained by Gerald Davies.”
  152. ^ a b c d “Rugby in the Olympics: History”. IRB. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  153. ^ Kelso, Paul (9 October 2009). “Rugby sevens and golf ratified for 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro”. Telegraph. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  154. ^ “Golf & rugby voted into Olympics”. BBC News. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
  155. ^ “Commonwealth Games 2010: Form guide – rugby sevens”. BBC Sport. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  156. ^ “Commonwealth Games: NZ win sevens as England miss medal”. BBC Sport. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  157. ^ “Japan claim Asian Games gold”. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  158. ^ “Kazakhstan win first Asian Games women’s gold”. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  159. ^ “Women’s Rugby”. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  160. ^ Dolidze, Giorgi (5 February 2009). “Women’s Rugby: Beautiful Side of a Brtual Game”. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  161. ^ “Rugby’s prized trophies going on tour”. 6 February 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  162. ^ “England Women beat Ireland to clinch Grand Slam”. BBC Sport. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  163. ^ Bath 1997, p. 71
  164. ^ a b “A Beginner’s Guide to Rugby Union”. IRB. p. 14. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  165. ^ deKroo, Karl (11 April 2009). “Touch rugby league growing in Brisbane”. The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  166. ^ “Touch Rugby”. RFU. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  167. ^ “Tag Rugby”. RFU. 11 April 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  168. ^ “About Mini Rugby”. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  169. ^ Rutherford, Don (1993). The Complete Book of Mini Rugby. London: Partridge. p. 2. ISBN 1852251964.
  170. ^ a b “Mini Rugby”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  171. ^ “About AFR”. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  172. ^ Deges, Frankie (15 July 2008). “Rugby X-treme hits the Andes”. IRB. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  173. ^ Bath 1997, p. 77
  174. ^ Stubbs 2009, p. 115
  175. ^ a b c d John Everett Robbins, ed. (1972). Encyclopedia Canadiana. 8. Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal: Grolier of Canada. p. 110. ISBN 0717216012.
  176. ^ Geoffrey Blainey, Leonie Sandercock, Ian Turner and Sean Fagan have all written in support of this view. See, for example: Richard Davis, 1991, “Irish and Australian Nationalism: the Sporting Connection: Football & Cricket”, Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies Bulletin, v.3, no.2, pp. 49–50 and; B. W. O’Dwyer, 1989, “The Shaping of Victorian Rules Football”, Victorian Historical Journal, v.60, no.1.
  177. ^ Haigh, Gideon (21 March 2009). “Murder, suicide, cricket”. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  178. ^ Wolff, Alexander (25 November 2002). “The Olden Rules”. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  179. ^ Kanter, Jacob (21 September 2010). “Profile-James Naismith: Where athletics meets religious fervor”. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  180. ^ Jönsson, Åke (2006). Fotboll: hur världens största sport växte fram. Lund: Historiska media. p. 203. ISBN 91-85377-48-1.
  181. ^ “SvFF:s tillkomst 1904”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  182. ^ “About Wheelchair Rugby”. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  183. ^ Robson, Seth (8 July 2011). “They’re game: Rugby team willing to play all takers”. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  184. ^ a b Chadwick, Simon (5 April 2011). “Economic Impact Report on Global Rugby; Part III: Strategic and Emerging Markets”. Centre for the International Business of Sport, Coventry University. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  185. ^ a b c d e “IRB Year in Review 2010”. IRB. 2010. p. 74. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  186. ^ “Statsguru/Test matches/Player records”. ESPN Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  187. ^ “Statsguru/Test matches/Player records”. ESPN Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  188. ^ “Lithuania bid for World record test run”. IRB. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  189. ^ “Statsguru / Test matches / Team records: Lithuania, matches between 4 June 2006 and 8 May 2010, sorted by ascending match date”. ESPN Scrum. SFMS Limited. Retrieved 6 May 2011. “The dates chosen bookend Lithuania’s 18-match winning streak.”
  190. ^ a b “Games where 100 or more points were scored by a team”. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  191. ^ “Bective Rangers – James Joyce”. UK. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  192. ^ “The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire”. BBC. UK. September 2005. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  193. ^ Lauf, Cornelia. “Henri Rousseau”. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  194. ^ Dine, Philip (2001). French Rugby Football. Oxford: Berg. p. 19. ISBN 1-85973-327-1.
  195. ^ “Art Competitions”. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  196. ^ Berry, David (1996). Wales and Cinema, The First Hundred Years. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 215. ISBN 0-7083-1370-1.
  197. ^ Carlin, John (19 October 2007). “How Nelson Mandela won the rugby World Cup”. The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  198. ^ Fihlani, Pumza (11 December 2009). “South Africa ‘rugby unity’: Fact and fiction”. BBC News (UK). Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  199. ^ Kilvington, Joanna (2 June 2010). “RFU unveils iconic bronze of rugby line-out by sculptor Gerald Laing”. UK. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  200. ^ “Statue of Sir Tasker is unveiled”. BBC News (UK). 15 November 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  201. ^ “Craven of Craven Week”. 27 June 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2011.

[edit] Printed sources

  • Encyclopedia Canadiana vol. 8. Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal: Grolier of Canada. 1972. ISBN 0717216012.
  • Bath, Richard, ed. (1997). Complete Book of Rugby. Seven Oaks Ltd. ISBN 1862000133.
  • Biscombe, Tony; Drewett, Peter (2009). Rugby: Steps to Success. Human Kinetics.
  • Bompa, Tudor; Claro, Frederick (2008). Periodization in Rugby. Meyer and Meyer Sport.
  • Godwin, Terry; Rhys, Chris (1981). The Guinness Book of Rugby Facts & Feats. Enfield: Guinness Superlatives Ltd. ISBN 0851122140.
  • Griffiths, John (1987). The Phoenix Book of International Rugby Records. London: Phoenix House. ISBN 0460070037.
  • Marshall, Howard; Jordon, J.P. (1951). Oxford v Cambridge, The Story of the University Rugby Match. London: Clerke & Cockeran.
  • Midgley, Ruth (1979). The Official World Encyclopedia of Sports and Games. London: Diagram Group. ISBN 0-7092-0153-2.
  • Richards, Huw (2007). A Game for Hooligans: The History of Rugby Union. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1845962555.
  • Stubbs, Ray (2009). The Sports Book. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-1405336970.
  • Thomas, J.B.G.; Rowe, Harding (1954). On Tour. Essex: Anchor Press Ltd..

Electronic sources